Egyptian antiquities

Antiquities in the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco: A Brief Review

The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco are among those North American art museums fortunate to display good quality collections of ancient Mediterranean and related antiquities. The Museums’ antiquities collection is housed in the Legion of Honor, with its spectacular views over the Golden Gate, the City of San Francisco itself, and across to Marin County. The collection consists of approximately 1,000 objects ranging in date from Bronze Age to Byzantine, represent nearly every type of material and cover a wide geographic reach from Egypt and the Near East to Western Europe.

For those living in the densely populated San Francisco Bay Area or Northern California generally, there are several options for viewing ancient art. The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum in San Jose offers a vast, if rather poorly displayed collection of Egyptian antiquities. UC Berkeley’s Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology offers a modest but very high quality selection of Egyptian and Classical antiquities. And now the Crocker Art Museum in Sacramento maintains a good quality collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and other Mediterranean antiquities, thanks in large part to donations and other efforts by the Chris Maupin Trust for Ancient Art. Still, on the whole, the Legions’ antiquities collections are the most balanced and largest on display in Northern California. Most of this collection was acquired in the early 20th Century, especially through the gifts of M. H. de Young, founder of the de Young Museum, and Alma de Bretville Spreckels, wife of sugar magnate Adolph Spreckels. She had lived in Paris just prior to the outbreak of the First World War and met many acclaimed artists, including Auguste Rodin (many of his works are in the Legion today). With her husband’s backing, Spreckels determined to create a new museum for San Francisco, modeled on the Palais de le Legion d’Honneur in Paris. In addition to her own gifts, the new Museum, opened in 1924, received art from the French government and the Queen of Romania and the Queen of Greece. Many smaller gifts have been made since then.

Despite offering a very good selection of ancient art, particularly Egyptian and Roman antiquities of all sorts and Greek ceramics, the relatively small portion of the collection on view at any time is today relegated to display cases along the walls of a broad corridor in the lower levels of the Legion; a corridor that also contains access to the Legion’s theater and restrooms, bookstore, porcelain and other collections. This arrangement denies the visitor the opportunity to view works from anything more than one direction. The rather extensive collection of Roman glass is also hindered by the fact that nearly all of it is highly iridescent. This may have been due to the collecting preferences of Alma Spreckels or the Queen of Greece, from whom she acquired most of the Museum’s Roman glass. In any case, this selection prevents the visitor from seeing Roman glass as it would have appeared in its original condition.

In its favor, the Museum does have a support group for the antiquities collection, the Ancient Arts Council. The group sponsors lectures by art historians, classicists and archaeologists on a regular basis, offers travel discounts and private tours of the collection, and more. Here is a link to the Council’s website: http://www.ancientartcouncil.org/membership

The following images, all taken by the author, offer some insight into the quality of the Legion’s collections. For many more antiquities images from the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco online database go to: http://art.famsf.org/search?f[0]=field_art_image_available%3A1&f[1]=field_art_department%3A718

Egyptian antiquities

Egyptian shabtis of the New Kingdom and Late Dynastic Periods

Egyptian Antiquities

Mummy mask and pectoral from the Fayum. Ptolemaic Period, 332-30 BC

Egyptian antiquities

Section of mummy cartonnage, 21st Dynasty, 1069-845 BC

Egyptian antiquities

Winged scarab in polychrome faience. Late Dynastic Period.

Luristan antiquities

Cheek pieces in the form of winged sphinxes. Bronze. Luristan, western Iran, early 1st Millennium BC

Cypriot antiquities

Cypriot bi-chrome footed pottery goblet, 725-600 BC

Cypriot antiquities

Pair of Cypriot lustrous red pottery spindle bottles, 1400-1230 BC

Greek South Italian Antiquities

Greek South Italian (Apulian) black glazed guttus, 4th Century BC

Greek antiquities

Attic red figure lekythos (left) and alabastron (right), Athens, first half of the 5th Century BC

Hellenistic gold jewelry, Roman gold jewelry

A Greek Hellenistic gold and carnelian necklace (outer) and a Roman 3rd Century AD gold, sapphire and garnet necklace (inner)

Roman glass, ancient glass

Roman glass flasks, early 1st Century AD, the central flask marbled, the others highly iridescent.

Roman antiquities

Roman marble sarcophagus, Italy, 3rd Century AD

Byzantine mosaics, Byzantine antiquities

Early Byzantine mosaic panel featuring a peacock. Western Asia Minor, 5th or 6th Century AD

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Iranian Antiquities in the Current Political Context

International political affairs often interfere with normal processes of cultural exchange. There can hardly be a better example than the current situation in relation to Iran. Severe trade restrictions or total embargoes on trade with that country have had the unfortunate impact of also restricting trade between other nations on goods of Iranian origin, including cultural items such as antiquities, Persian carpets and more.

There are multiple types of Iran trade restrictions in place today. Those imposed by the UN and EU are focused on curtailing Iran’s nuclear program. Restrictions imposed by individual countries, such as the US and UK, also seek to deny sources of revenue to Iran. One side effect of this is that although Iran has its own quite strict laws governing private ownership or export of antiquities found within its national boundaries, existing laws also restrict the trade in Iranian antiquities between other nations participating in sanctions against Iran, such as the US and UK.

This presents a special set of problems to the antiquities trade, despite the fact that these objects could not possibly lend any financial support to the modern Iranian state, as Iran can lay no claim to these long ago exported objects. Major auction houses in London and New York, in their twice per year antiquities sales, must provide explicit warnings to potential bidders that particular items are subject to these restrictions. Put simply, a bidder in the United States may not acquire antiquities of ancient Iranian origin auctioned in London or Paris and vice-versa.

For both private collectors and museums in the United States seeking to acquire ancient art broadly defined as originating in ancient Iran (Persia, if one prefers), this means the pool of objects potentially available is now quite limited.

Perhaps the most widely available class of antiquities from ancient Iran available on the US market today comes from the region known as Luristan. This is a mountainous region in modern western and west-central Iran. The ancient inhabitants of Luristan left behind very little in the way of written language so much of what is known of them comes from second hand ancient sources, such as Assyrian trade records. It is known that from roughly the 10th-7th Centuries BCE (or BC, if one prefers), the Luristan culture was responsible for a tremendous output of weapons, tools, jewelry, horse and chariot gear and ritual objects. Much of this material was excavated illicitly during the 1940s and ’50s. The strangely “modernist” style of Luristan bronzes appealed to many collectors in the West, creating more demand. Before Iranian cultural patrimony laws began to be rigorously enforced, thousands of these objects made their way to western Europe. the UK, US and beyond.

Clio Ancient Art has two fine examples of Luristan bronze antiquities currently for sale. Here are images, brief descriptions and links to them —

Luristan Bronze Stylized Horse Plaque. Early Iron Age, 10th – 7th Century BCE

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Link to this object:  http://www.clioancientart.com/catalog/i23.html

Luristan Bronze Garment Pin. Early Iron Age, 10th – 7th Century BCE

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Link to this object:  http://www.clioancientart.com/catalog/i22.html

Clio’s museum endowment arm, the Chris Maupin Trust for Ancient Art, has donated a few fine examples of Luristan bronzes, notably to the Crocker Art Museum in Sacramento.Here are images and brief description of two of these:

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Luristan Bronze Horse Bit with Zoomorphic Cheek Pieces. Early Iron Age, 10th – 7th Century BC

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Luristan (or closely related) Bronze Bowl, Circa 700 BC

There are several fine collections of ancient Iranian antiquities, including Luristan bronzes, Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanian antiquities, available for viewing in US museums, and many of these have been widely published. Here are just a few:

* Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (website also includes easy to use searchable database): http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/museum-departments/curatorial-departments/ancient-near-eastern-art

* University of Michigan’s Kelsey Museum of Archaeology. The museum’s substantial Near Eastern holdings may be accessed through both a searchable database and links to online exhibitions: http://www.lsa.umich.edu/kelsey/collections

: University of Pennsylvania Museum (website includes a searchable collections database): http://www.penn.museum/about-our-collections/near-east-section.html

* Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, Palace of the Legion of Honor (also with a searchable database): http://legionofhonor.famsf.org/legion/collections/ancient-art

For those residing in or visiting Northern California, to see the 2 Luristan objects listed above in the Crocker Art Museum (not yet on their website), as well as many other antiquities, here is information on visiting the Crocker: http://www.crockerartmuseum.org/visit

Questions and comments are welcome.

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